The shortage of fresh water is increasing even in countries such as the United States, where the annual rainfall is not at all that bad. In many areas of the United States, however, the need for fresh water for household use, agriculture and industry exceeds the available supply. In countries such as Israel or Kuwait, where rainfall is very low, freshwater resources are not adequate to accommodate the needs of the country, the modernization of the economy and population growth. Eventually, all of humanity will face the need to treat the oceans, using sea water reverse osmosis, as a source of useable water for human consumption and industry.
The high concentration of salt in sea water renders it undrinkable and unusable for most other purposes. In the United States, the maintenance of salts in tap water, according to health authorities, is not to exceed 0.05%. This is much less than 3.5% of normal seawater or 0.5% concentration of brackish groundwater. Brackish water reverse osmosis reduces the content of salt in sea water to a level at which water is useable, which is also called the desalination of water.
Water desalination can be performed by using reverse osmosis water treatment systems. This is the most economical way for desalination of sea and brackish water today. AXEON Water Technologies designs, engineers and manufactures a variety of reverse osmosis water treatment systems. The main component of reverse osmosis water treatment systems is the reverse osmosis membrane. To protect the reverse osmosis system from dangerous impurities contained in feed water, the system is equipped with the appropriate pretreatment components, such as sediment filters and anti-scalant dosing systems. After the reverse osmosis membrane, the product water usually has a low pH. To adjust the pH, the water passes through a pH adjustment stage in the system. Then the treated water goes into a storage tank. The last stage consists of disinfecting, re-pressurizing and distributing the water for use.