Technical Articles

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Reverse Osmosis System Commissioning and Operation

By Steve Peck, Technical Manager, AXEON Water Technologies This is an article on commissioning and operation of a reverse osmosis (RO) membrane system. However, prior to the installation and commissioning of a RO system, it is important to read the entire User’s Manual.  The User’s Manual will provide instructions and information specific to the system.  In more…

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Using RO for Sustainable Agriculture

By Steve Peck, Technical Manager, AXEON Water Technologies California is in its fourth year of record-breaking drought causing Governor Jerry Brown to declare a state of emergency in January 2015 and impose statewide water conservation measures. Rainmakers are looking up at the sky and praying for the next El Nino event to alleviate conditions in more…

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Combating Production Loss in Cold Temperatures With HF5-Series Membranes

Problem: Cold feed water temperatures can cause havoc for reverse osmosis system operators. As water temperatures decrease, so can permeate water production rates. Permeate flow decreases by approximately 3% for every degree decreased in Celsius. Operators can attempt to combat production loss due to low water temperature by increasing the feed water pressure to the more…

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Reverse Osmosis Concentrate Management

Steve Peck, Technical Manager, AXEON Water Technologies Sources of freshwater are generally defined as those having a total dissolved solids (TDS) content of under 3,000 parts per million (ppm). For decades, 10,000 ppm TDS has served as the US Environmental Protection Agency’s standard for usable water protected under the Safe Drinking Water Act. Water with more…

Guidelines for Sizing and Designing a Reverse Osmosis System

Steve Peck, Technical Manager, AXEON Water Technologies The methodology of designing a reverse osmosis (RO) system is a fairly uniform process across the water treatment industry. A RO system is inherently a modular design with the “building blocks” being the membrane elements and the pressure vessels (that house the elements). For commercial and industrial applications, more…

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Reverse Osmosis Membrane Cleaning

Steve Peck, Technical Manager, AXEON Water Technologies The combination of proper pretreatment of the feed water prior to the RO system and optimizing the RO operating conditions such as the flux and recovery rate will reduce the exposure of the membrane to foulants thus maximizing the length of service of the RO membranes and minimizing more…

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Reverse Osmosis Membrane Scale Control

Steve Peck, Technical Manager, AXEON Water Technologies Many customers are familiar with the term TDS, total dissolved solids.  TDS is a very important parameter in the design of reverse osmosis (RO) systems.  TDS is often reported in parts per million, ppm, such as 300 ppm for tap water or say 2000 ppm for well water.  more…

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Reverse Osmosis Membrane Element Construction

Reverse osmosis (RO) membranes have been in commercial use since the 1960’s. The spiral wound membrane element first designed in 1965 has since become the mainstay of the RO industry. This design consists of multiple “leaves” wound around a central “core” tube. As shown below, each leaf consists of a permeate channel spacer enveloped by more…

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Reverse Osmosis Membrane Element Performance

Reverse osmosis elements are commonly classified by the type of membrane used in the element, the diameter of the element, the length of the element and the type of outer wrap of the element. The selection of membrane varies accordingly with the application and feed water source. There are different types of membranes used to more…

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Removing Chlorine and Chloramines from Municipal Tap Water

Steve Peck, Technical Manager, AXEON Water Technologies In order to safeguard the public from bacteria or other microorganisms contaminating the municipal water supply, water utilities disinfect the water exiting the water treatment system into the distribution piping. The most common disinfectants are chlorine and chloramines due to their long residence time. Residual chlorine or chloramines more…

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Getting More Out of Your Coffee

American’s love of coffee dates back to the Boston Tea Party in 1773 when the colonists boycotted tea. The colonists united and vowed to only serve coffee in their homes. Ever since, the American taste for coffee has continued to grow. Most attention of course is given to the type of coffee bean and where more…